Le temps d’écran

Merci beaucoup à Pleen le Jeune pour la relecture
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6wF0stG_iXMO4mIXM9g3YQ/videos

Pourquoi se soucier du temps d’écran ? Présente-t-il un danger ?

De nombreuses données scientifiques indiquent que plus d’une heure d’écran par jour peut être lié à des problèmes d’obésité et de forme physique1–6, de mauvaises habitudes alimentaires7,8, et à des problèmes de sommeil9–12 (dus à une heure de coucher plus tardive et/ou trop de stimulation13 ou encore un rythme circadien perturbé par la lumière de l’écran14–16). Pour les personnes exposées plus de 4 heures par jour, le temps d’écran a été associé à des problèmes de santé mental8,17–19, et à des problèmes de comportements20, même s’il n’est pas toujours clair si l’utilisation excessive d’écrans serait la cause ou la conséquence des problèmes de santé mentionnées précédemment. En plus de tout ça, de plus en plus de travaux soulignent que l’exposition aux écran a un impact négatif sur la santé oculaire21–27.

Recommandations officielles et situation actuelle

Pour ces raisons, depuis 2013, l‘Académie américaine de pédiatrie, et d’autres institutions comme la Mildeca en France, recommandaient d’éviter au maximum l’exposition aux écrans avant 2 ans, de ne pas dépasser 1 heure par jour avant 5 ans et de veiller à ce que le temps d’écran ne dépasse pas deux heures par jour par la suite28,29. Toutefois, plusieurs études estiment que plus des deux-tiers des enfants ne respectent pas la limite des deux heures par jours30,31, avec une exposition comprise entre deux et huit heures par jours chez les adolescents32–34. Par exemple, selon l’Autorité de régulation des communications (ARCEP), 93% des 12-17 ans étaient équipés d’un téléphone portable en France en 201629. Les écrans jouent donc aujourd’hui un rôle central dans la vie des enfants allant du divertissement, au travail scolaire, en passant par les médias sociaux, et cela commence dès la naissance35,36.

Constatant les changements rapides des appareils concernés (téléphone, tablette, portable…) et des pratiques (visionnage, jeux vidéo, discussion en ligne, travail scolaire…), de nombreux scientifiques nuancent aujourd’hui l’idée que les écrans seraient intrinsèquement mauvais pour les enfants. Le concept même de “temps d’écran” serait trop simpliste et n’aurait plus beaucoup de sens8,37–39. Il entraine aussi beaucoup de confusion, voire de culpabilité, parmi les parents et les enseignants qui souhaitent utiliser les nouvelles technologies39.

Ainsi, depuis 2016, plusieurs institutions dont l‘Académie américaine de pédiatrie commencent à nuancer leurs recommandations notamment par rapport aux discussion en ligne ou les programmes éducatifs40,41. Des questions plus pertinentes pour les parents et éducateurs seraient donc de se demander si le temps alloué aux écrans se fait vraiment au détriment d’activités académiques, sportives ou sociales ? Ou encore, si les enfants discutent et échangent autour de ce qu’ils voient sur ces écrans42 ?

Du point de vue académique, les études s’intéressent de plus en plus aujourd’hui aux effets du type d’utilisation et du type de contenu. Il convient par exemple de distinguer les écrans passifs (e.g. TV) des écrans interactifs (e.g. Jeux vidéo), ainsi que les contenus divertissant des contenus éducatifs. C’est ce que je vais détailler dans les articles suivants :

Les écrans passifs (TV etc...)

Les écrans interactifs (jeux-vidéo etc..)

En attendant, un site francophone de référence est https://lebonusagedesecrans.fr

Références

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9             Hale, Lauren and Guan, Stanford (2015) ‘Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: A systematic literature review’. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 21, pp. 50–58. [online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1087079214000811 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

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12           Owens, Judith, Maxim, Rolanda, McGuinn, Melissa, Nobile, Chantelle, et al. (1999) ‘Television-viewing Habits and Sleep Disturbance in School Children’. Pediatrics, 104(3), pp. e27–e27. [online] Available from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/104/3/e27 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

13           Anderson, Craig A. and Bushman, Brad J. (2001) ‘Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature’. Psychological Science, 12(5), pp. 353–359. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00366 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

14           Higuchi, Shigekazu, Motohashi, Yutaka, Liu, Yang and Maeda, Akira (2005) ‘Effects of playing a computer game using a bright display on presleep physiological variables, sleep latency, slow wave sleep and REM sleep’. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(3), pp. 267–273. [online] Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2005.00463.x (Accessed 14 June 2019)

15           Gooley, Joshua J., Chamberlain, Kyle, Smith, Kurt A., Khalsa, Sat Bir S., et al. (2011) ‘Exposure to Room Light before Bedtime Suppresses Melatonin Onset and Shortens Melatonin Duration in Humans’. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 96(3), pp. E463–E472. [online] Available from: https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article/96/3/E463/2597236 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

16           Wood, Brittany, Rea, Mark S., Plitnick, Barbara and Figueiro, Mariana G. (2013) ‘Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression’. Applied Ergonomics, 44(2), pp. 237–240. [online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003687012001159 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

17           Twenge, Jean M. and Campbell, W. Keith (2018) ‘Associations between screen time and lower psychological well-being among children and adolescents: Evidence from a population-based study’. Preventive Medicine Reports, 12, pp. 271–283. [online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211335518301827 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

18           Maras, Danijela, Flament, Martine F., Murray, Marisa, Buchholz, Annick, et al. (2015) ‘Screen time is associated with depression and anxiety in Canadian youth’. Preventive Medicine, 73, pp. 133–138.

19           Liu, Mingli, Ming, Qingsen, Yi, Jinyao, Wang, Xiang and Yao, Shuqiao (2016) ‘Screen Time on School Days and Risks for Psychiatric Symptoms and Self-Harm in Mainland Chinese Adolescents’. Frontiers in Psychology, 7. [online] Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00574/full (Accessed 9 January 2020)

20           Wu, Xiaoyan, Tao, Shuman, Rutayisire, Erigene, Chen, Yunxiao, et al. (2017) ‘The relationship between screen time, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems in preschool children in China’. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(5), pp. 541–548. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-016-0912-8 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

21           Kim, Joowon, Hwang, Yunji, Kang, Seungheon, Kim, Minhye, et al. (2016) ‘Association between Exposure to Smartphones and Ocular Health in Adolescents’. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 23(4), pp. 269–276. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.3109/09286586.2015.1136652 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

22           Ranasinghe, P., Wathurapatha, W. S., Perera, Y. S., Lamabadusuriya, D. A., et al. (2016) ‘Computer vision syndrome among computer office workers in a developing country: an evaluation of prevalence and risk factors’. BMC Research Notes, 9(1), p. 150. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-016-1962-1 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

23           Reddy, S. Chandrasekhara, Low, C. K., Lim, Y. P., Low, L. L., et al. (2013) ‘Computer vision syndrome: a study of knowledge and practices in university students’. Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology, 5(2), pp. 161–168. [online] Available from: https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/NEPJOPH/article/view/8707 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

24           Bali, Jatinder, Navin, Neeraj and Thakur, Bali Renu (2007) ‘Computer vision syndrome: A study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices in Indian Ophthalmologists’. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 55(4), p. 289. [online] Available from: http://www.ijo.in/article.asp?issn=0301-4738;year=2007;volume=55;issue=4;spage=289;epage=293;aulast=Bali;type=0 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

25           Kozeis, N (2009) ‘Impact of computer use on children’s vision’. Hippokratia, 13(4), pp. 230–231. [online] Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2776336/ (Accessed 8 January 2020)

26           Moon, Jun Hyung, Kim, Kyoung Woo and Moon, Nam Ju (2016) ‘Smartphone use is a risk factor for pediatric dry eye disease according to region and age: a case control study’. BMC Ophthalmology, 16(1), p. 188. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12886-016-0364-4 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

27           Moon, Jun Hyung, Lee, Mee Yon and Moon, Nam Ju (2014) ‘Association Between Video Display Terminal Use and Dry Eye Disease in School Children’. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 51(2), pp. 87–92. [online] Available from: https://www.healio.com/ophthalmology/journals/jpos/2014-3-51-2/{499cc9fa-879a-4820-ae6b-9e0ecab48efc}/association-between-video-display-terminal-use-and-dry-eye-disease-in-school-children (Accessed 8 January 2020)

28           APA (Council on communications and media) (2013) ‘Children, Adolescents, and the Media’. Pediatrics, 132(5). [online] Available from: https://kstp.com/kstpImages/repository/cs/files/Pediatrics-2013--peds_2013-2656.pdf

29           Mildeca (2018) ‘L’exposition aux écrans’. [online] Available from: https://www.drogues.gouv.fr/comprendre/ce-qu-il-faut-savoir-sur/lexposition-aux-ecrans

30           Atkin, Andrew J., Sharp, Stephen J., Corder, Kirsten and van Sluijs, Esther M. F. (2014) ‘Prevalence and Correlates of Screen Time in Youth: An International Perspective’. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 47(6), pp. 803–807. [online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379714004127 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

31           The Office of Communications (2016) Children and parents: media use and attitudes report, [online] Available from: https://www .ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0034/93976/Children- Parents-Media-Use-Attitudes-Report-2016.pdf

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33           Mullan, Killian (2018) ‘Technology and Children’s Screen-Based Activities in the UK: The Story of the Millennium So Far’. Child Indicators Research, 11(6), pp. 1781–1800. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-017-9509-0 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

34           Tremblay, Mark S., LeBlanc, Allana G., Kho, Michelle E., Saunders, Travis J., et al. (2011) ‘Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth’. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), p. 98. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-98 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

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36           Livingstone, Sonia and Franklin, Keely (2018) ‘Families with young children and “screen time”’. Journal of Health Visiting, 6(9), pp. 434–439. [online] Available from: https://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/abs/10.12968/johv.2018.6.9.434 (Accessed 8 January 2020)

37           Etchells P. on behalf of all signatories (2017) ‘Screen time guidelines need to be built on evidence, not hype’. The Guardian. [online] Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/science/head-quarters/2017/jan/06/screen-time-guidelines-need-to-be-built-on-evidence-not-hype (Accessed 8 January 2020)

38           Houghton, Stephen, Hunter, Simon C., Rosenberg, Michael, Wood, Lisa, et al. (2015) ‘Virtually impossible: limiting Australian children and adolescents daily screen based media use’. BMC Public Health, 15(1), p. 5. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-15-5 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

39           Straker, Leon, Zabatiero, Juliana, Danby, Susan, Thorpe, Karen and Edwards, Susan (2018) ‘Conflicting Guidelines on Young Children’s Screen Time and Use of Digital Technology Create Policy and Practice Dilemmas’. The Journal of Pediatrics, 202, pp. 300–303. [online] Available from: https://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(18)30912-0/abstract (Accessed 10 January 2020)

40           American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Communications and Media (2016) ‘Media and Young Minds’. Pediatrics, 138(5).

41           Canadian Paediatric Society Digital Health Task Force, Ponti, Michelle, Bélanger, Stacey, Grimes, Ruth, et al. (2017) ‘Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in a digital world’. Paediatrics & Child Health, 22(8), pp. 461–468. [online] Available from: https://academic.oup.com/pch/article/22/8/461/4392451 (Accessed 10 January 2020)

42           Ferguson, Christopher J. and Beresin, Eugene (2017) ‘Social science’s curious war with pop culture and how it was lost: The media violence debate and the risks it holds for social science’. Preventive Medicine, 99, pp. 69–76. [online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743517300579 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

Date de dernière mise à jour : 26/02/2020

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