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Les écrans passifs

Merci beaucoup à Pleen le Jeune pour la relecture
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6wF0stG_iXMO4mIXM9g3YQ/videos

Quels effets ont les programmes divertissants?

Chez les enfants de moins de 2 ans, de nombreuses études existent désormais qui confirment que regarder la télévision a un impact négatif sur le développement cognitif, notamment le langage1–7, les fonctions exécutifs comme l’attention ou la mémoire1,2,5,8–11, et le contrôle des émotions10,12. Même lorsqu’elle n’est allumé qu’en arrière-plan, la télévision a un impact négatif sur le développement moteur3,10, les comportements de jeu, et la qualité des intéractions parents-enfants13,14. Elle réduit en particulier la quantité et la qualité du langage utilisé15,16. L’impact négatif de la télévision serait donc surtout causé par le fait que le temps passé devant la télé est pris sur du temps qui serait passé à faire d’autres activités comme le sommeil, la lecture ou le jeu17–21.

Plus tard, pendant l’enfance et l’adolescence, regarder plus de 3 heures de télévision par jour a été associé à des effets négatifs sur le développement intellectuel13,22–24, les résultats scolaires24–26, le langage4,7,15,27,28, l’attention9,24, les comportements alimentaires29–37, l’obésité38–56, les risques cardio-vasculaires57–60, la santé mental61–67, le sommeil20,68–73, et l’apparition de conduites sanitaires à risque tel que le tabagisme74–80 et l’alcoolisme81–88. Il semble même qu’on puisse parler d’un certain lien de causalité. C’est-à-dire, ce n 'est pas parce que les personnes ont des problèmes qu’elles regardent trop la télévision, mais bien la consommation excessive de la télévision qui conduit à ces problèmes. En effet, lorsque le temps d'exposition est réduit, le sommeil s'améliore73, ainsi que les performances cognitives23 et scolaires72. Par contre, certains domaines restent encore controversées, notamment un effet négatif de la télévision sur l’agressivité et la violence chez les jeunes89–95, l’image de soi96–98 ou la sexualité 99,100.

Comment réduire ce temps d’écran ?

La famille reste le principal facteur qui détermine le temps d’écran de l’enfant.  En terme de prévention, les stratégies généralement proposées qui ont montré leur efficacité incluent:

  • Un contrôle parental, et des règles claires limitant le temps d’écran101–106.
  • Donner le bon exemple. En effet, plusieurs études montrent que les habitudes des enfants concernant télévision, jeux vidéo, et activité physique, sont souvent liées à celles de leurs parents107–112.
  • Eviter de mettre une télévision ou un ordinateur dans la chambre de l’enfant, ceci étant fortement corrélé à un temps d’écran plus élevé101–104.
  • L’encouragement à faire du sport, u113,114.
  • Sensibiliser les autres personnes entourant l’enfant (nounous, enseignants)114,115.

Le site https://lebonusagedesecrans.fr/category/conseils-aux-parents/ propose aussi de nombreuses stratégies pour communiquer efficacement avec ses enfants sur le bon usage des écrans. N’hésitez surtout pas à aller y jeter un coup d’œil.

Sentez-vous libre de jeter aussi un coup d’œil aux articles suivants sur ce site

Les styles parentaux
La fessée

Le temps-mort

La discipline positive

Quels effets ont les programmes éducatifs ? Sont-ils vraiment efficaces ?

C’est vers 2 ans et demi que l’enfant commence à comprendre des programmes télévisuels adaptés à son âge‍116. Ainsi, à partir de cet âge-là jusqu’à l’adolescence, de nombreuses études rapportent un effet positif des programmes éducatifs sur le vocabulaire, les connaissances et les performances scolaires en lecture, écriture et mathématique. Ceci est valable pour tous les statuts socio-économiques mais surtout pour les moins favorisés11,18,22,117–120.

Concernant l’utilisation de la télévision à l’école, je n’ai pas trouvé d’études randomisées contrôlées testant l’efficacité de cours avec vs sans support audiovisuel. Toutefois, plusieurs chercheurs soulignent que la télévision peut être un outil utile lorsqu’elle sert de support à des activités encadrés par un enseignant121–124.

Références

1             Barr, Rachel, Lauricella, Alexis, Zack, Elizabeth and Calvert, Sandra L. (2010) ‘Infant and Early Childhood Exposure to Adult-Directed and Child-Directed Television Programming: Relations with Cognitive Skills at Age Four’. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 56(1), pp. 21–48. [online] Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/23098082 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

2             Zimmerman, Frederick J. and Christakis, Dimitri A. (2005) ‘Children’s Television Viewing and Cognitive Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis of National Data’. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159(7), pp. 619–625. [online] Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/486070 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

3             Lin, Ling-Yi, Cherng, Rong-Ju, Chen, Yung-Jung, Chen, Yi-Jen and Yang, Hei-Mei (2015) ‘Effects of television exposure on developmental skills among young children’. Infant Behavior and Development, 38, pp. 20–26. [online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0163638314001192 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

4             Chonchaiya, Weerasak and Pruksananonda, Chandhita (2008) ‘Television viewing associates with delayed language development’. Acta Paediatrica, 97(7), pp. 977–982. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00831.x (Accessed 8 August 2017)

5             Christakis, Dimitri A (2009) ‘The effects of infant media usage: what do we know and what should we learn?’ Acta Paediatrica, 98(1), pp. 8–16. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.01027.x (Accessed 8 August 2017)

6             Linebarger, Deborah L. and Walker, Dale (2005) ‘Infants’ and Toddlers’ Television Viewing and Language Outcomes’. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(5), pp. 624–645. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764204271505 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

7             Zimmerman, Frederick J., Christakis, Dimitri A. and Meltzoff, Andrew N. (2007) ‘Associations between Media Viewing and Language Development in Children Under Age 2 Years’. The Journal of Pediatrics, 151(4), pp. 364–368. [online] Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022347607004477 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

8             Anderson, Daniel R. and Pempek, Tiffany A. (2005) ‘Television and Very Young Children’. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(5), pp. 505–522. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764204271506 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

9             Christakis, D. A., Zimmerman, F. J., DiGiuseppe, D. L. and McCarty, C. A. (2004) ‘Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems in Children’. PEDIATRICS, 113(4), pp. 708–713. [online] Available from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.113.4.708 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

10           Pagani, Linda S., Fitzpatrick, Caroline, Barnett, Tracie A. and Dubow, Eric (2010) ‘Prospective Associations Between Early Childhood Television Exposure and Academic, Psychosocial, and Physical Well-being by Middle Childhood’. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(5), pp. 425–431. [online] Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/383160 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

11           Kostyrka-Allchorne, Katarzyna, Cooper, Nicholas R. and Simpson, Andrew (2017) ‘The relationship between television exposure and children’s cognition and behaviour: A systematic review’. Developmental Review, 44, pp. 19–58. [online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273229717300011 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

12           Mistry, Kamila B., Minkovitz, Cynthia S., Strobino, Donna M. and Borzekowski, Dina L. G. (2007) ‘Children’s Television Exposure and Behavioral and Social Outcomes at 5.5 Years: Does Timing of Exposure Matter?’ Pediatrics, 120(4), pp. 762–769. [online] Available from: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/120/4/762 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

13           Schmidt, Marie Evans, Pempek, Tiffany A., Kirkorian, Heather L., Lund, Anne Frankenfield and Anderson, Daniel R. (2008) ‘The Effects of Background Television on the Toy Play Behavior of Very Young Children’. Child Development, 79(4), pp. 1137–1151. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01180.x (Accessed 9 August 2017)

14           Kirkorian, Heather L., Pempek, Tiffany A., Murphy, Lauren A., Schmidt, Marie E. and Anderson, Daniel R. (2009) ‘The Impact of Background Television on Parent–Child Interaction’. Child Development, 80(5), pp. 1350–1359. [online] Available from: https://srcd.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01337.x (Accessed 9 January 2020)

15           Christakis, Dimitri A., Gilkerson, Jill, Richards, Jeffrey A., Zimmerman, Frederick J., et al. (2009) ‘Audible Television and Decreased Adult Words, Infant Vocalizations, and Conversational Turns: A Population-Based Study’. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163(6), p. 554. [online] Available from: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.61 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

16           Pempek, Tiffany A., Kirkorian, Heather L. and Anderson, Daniel R. (2014) ‘The Effects of Background Television on the Quantity and Quality of Child-Directed Speech by Parents’. Journal of Children and Media, 8(3), pp. 211–222. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/17482798.2014.920715 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

17           Khan, Kiren, Purtell, Kelly, Logan, Jessica, Ansari, Arya and Justice, Laura (2017) ‘Association Between Television Viewing and Parent-Child Reading in the Early Home Environment’. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 38(7), pp. 521–527. [online] Available from: insights.ovid.com (Accessed 9 January 2020)

18           Ennemoser, Marco and Schneider, Wolfgang (2007) ‘Relations of television viewing and reading: Findings from a 4-year longitudinal study’. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), pp. 349–368.

19           Anderson, Daniel R., Subrahmanyam, Kaveri and Workgroup, on behalf of the Cognitive Impacts of Digital Media (2017) ‘Digital Screen Media and Cognitive Development’. Pediatrics, 140(Supplement 2), pp. S57–S61. [online] Available from: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/140/Supplement_2/S57 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

20           Johnson, Jeffrey G., Cohen, Patricia, Kasen, Stephanie, First, Michael B. and Brook, Judith S. (2004) ‘Association Between Television Viewing and Sleep Problems During Adolescence and Early Adulthood’. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 158(6), p. 562. [online] Available from: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archpedi.158.6.562 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

21           Barlett, Natalie D., Gentile, Douglas A., Barlett, Christopher P., Eisenmann, Joey C. and Walsh, David A. (2012) ‘Sleep as a Mediator of Screen Time Effects on US Children’s Health Outcomes’. Journal of Children and Media, 6(1), pp. 37–50. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1080/17482798.2011.633404 (Accessed 23 January 2020)

22           Wright, John C., Huston, Aletha C., Murphy, Kimberlee C., St. Peters, Michelle, et al. (2001) ‘The Relations of Early Television Viewing to School Readiness and Vocabulary of Children from Low-Income Families: The Early Window Project’. Child Development, 72(5), pp. 1347–1366. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00352 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

23           Gadberry, Sharon (1980) ‘Effects of restricting first graders’ TV-viewing on leisure time use, IQ change, and cognitive style’. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1(1), pp. 45–57. [online] Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0193397380900611 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

24           Johnson, Jeffrey G., Cohen, Patricia, Kasen, Stephanie and Brook, Judith S. (2007) ‘Extensive Television Viewing and the Development of Attention and Learning Difficulties During Adolescence’. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161(5), p. 480. [online] Available from: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archpedi.161.5.480 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

25           Sharif, Iman, Wills, Thomas A. and Sargent, James D. (2010) ‘Effect of Visual Media Use on School Performance: A Prospective Study’. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(1), pp. 52–61. [online] Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1054139X09002110 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

26           Shin, Nary (2004) ‘Exploring Pathways From Television Viewing to Academic Achievement in School Age Children’. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 165(4), pp. 367–382. [online] Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3200/GNTP.165.4.367-382 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

27           Tanimura, Masako, Okuma, Kanako and Kyoshima, Kayoko (2007) ‘Television Viewing, Reduced Parental Utterance, and Delayed Speech Development in Infants and Young Children’. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161(6), p. 618. [online] Available from: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archpedi.161.6.618-b (Accessed 8 August 2017)

28           Vandewater, E. A. (2006) ‘Time Well Spent? Relating Television Use to Children’s Free-Time Activities’. PEDIATRICS, 117(2), pp. e181–e191. [online] Available from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2005-0812 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

29           Barr-Anderson, D. J., van den Berg, P., Neumark-Sztainer, D. and Story, M. (2008) ‘Characteristics Associated With Older Adolescents Who Have a Television in Their Bedrooms’. PEDIATRICS, 121(4), pp. 718–724. [online] Available from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2007-1546 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

30           Hawkins, Nicole, Richards, P. Scott, Granley, H. Mac and Stein, David M. (2004) ‘The Impact of Exposure to the Thin-Ideal Media Image on Women’. Eating Disorders, 12(1), pp. 35–50. [online] Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10640260490267751 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

31           Paxton, Susan J., Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne, Hannan, Peter J. and Eisenberg, Marla E. (2006) ‘Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys’. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 35(4), pp. 539–549. [online] Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15374424jccp3504_5 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

32           Hogan, Marjorie J. and Strasburger, Victor C. (2008) ‘Body image, eating disorders, and the media’. Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, 19(3), pp. 521–546, x–xi.

33           Spettigue, Wendy and Henderson, Katherine A. (2004) ‘Eating Disorders and the Role of the Media’. The Canadian child and adolescent psychiatry review, 13(1), pp. 16–19. [online] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2533817/ (Accessed 8 August 2017)

34           Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne, Paxton, Susan J., Hannan, Peter J., Haines, Jess and Story, Mary (2006) ‘Does Body Satisfaction Matter? Five-year Longitudinal Associations between Body Satisfaction and Health Behaviors in Adolescent Females and Males’. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(2), pp. 244–251. [online] Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1054139X05005410 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

35           Calado, María, Lameiras, María, Sepulveda, Ana R., Rodríguez, Yolanda and Carrera, María V. (2010) ‘The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students’. European Eating Disorders Review, 18(5), pp. 417–427. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/erv.1024 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

36           Moriarty, Cortney M. and Harrison, Kristen (2008) ‘Television Exposure and Disordered Eating Among Children: A Longitudinal Panel Study’. Journal of Communication, 58(2), pp. 361–381. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.00389.x (Accessed 8 August 2017)

37           Harrison, K and Cantor, J (1997) ‘The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders’. Journal of Communication, 47(1), pp. 40–67. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1997.tb02692.x (Accessed 8 August 2017)

38           Hancox, R J and Poulton, R (2006) ‘Watching television is associated with childhood obesity: but is it clinically important?’ International Journal of Obesity, 30(1), pp. 171–175. [online] Available from: http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803071 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

39           Morgenstern, Matthis, Sargent, James D. and Hanewinkel, Reiner (2009) ‘Relation Between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index: Evidence of an Indirect Path via Television Use’. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163(8). [online] Available from: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.78 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

40           Jackson, D. M, Djafarian, K., Stewart, J. and Speakman, J. R (2009) ‘Increased television viewing is associated with elevated body fatness but not with lower total energy expenditure in children’. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89, pp. 1031–1036. [online] Available from: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26746 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

41           Foster, Jill A., Gore, Stacy A. and West, Delia Smith (2006) ‘Altering TV Viewing Habits: An Unexplored Strategy for Adult Obesity Intervention?’ American Journal of Health Behavior, 30(1), pp. 3–14. [online] Available from: http://openurl.ingenta.com/content/xref?genre=article&issn=1087-3244&volume=30&issue=1&spage=3 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

42           Utter, Jennifer, Scragg, Robert and Schaaf, David (2006) ‘Associations between television viewing and consumption of commonly advertised foods among New Zealand children and young adolescents’. Public Health Nutrition, 9(05). [online] Available from: http://www.journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S1368980006001017 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

43           Bowman, Shanthy A (2006) ‘Television-Viewing Characteristics of Adults: Correlations to Eating Practices and Overweight and Health Status’. Preventing Chronic Disease, 3(2). [online] Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1563980/ (Accessed 8 August 2017)

44           Kuepper-Nybelen, J (2005) ‘Major differences in prevalence of overweight according to nationality in preschool children living in Germany: determinants and public health implications’. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90(4), pp. 359–363. [online] Available from: http://adc.bmj.com/cgi/doi/10.1136/adc.2004.052423 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

45           Janssen, I., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Boyce, W. F., Vereecken, C., et al. (2005) ‘Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school-aged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and dietary patterns’. Obesity Reviews, 6(2), pp. 123–132. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2005.00176.x (Accessed 8 August 2017)

46           Janssen, Ian, Katzmarzyk, Peter T., Boyce, William F., King, Matthew A. and Pickett, William (2004) ‘Overweight and obesity in Canadian adolescents and their associations with dietary habits and physical activity patterns’. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(5), pp. 360–367. [online] Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1054139X04000588 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

47           Crespo, Carlos J., Smit, Ellen, Troiano, Richard P., Bartlett, Susan J., et al. (2001) ‘Television Watching, Energy Intake, and Obesity in US Children: Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994’. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155(3), p. 360. [online] Available from: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archpedi.155.3.360 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

48           Andersen, Ross E., Crespo, Carlos J., Bartlett, Susan J., Cheskin, Lawrence J. and Pratt, Michael (1998) ‘Relationship of Physical Activity and Television Watching With Body Weight and Level of Fatness Among Children: Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey’. JAMA, 279(12), p. 938. [online] Available from: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jama.279.12.938 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

49           Obarzanek, E., Schreiber, G. B., Crawford, P. B., Goldman, S. R., et al. (1994) ‘Energy intake and physical activity in relation to indexes of body fat: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study.’ The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60(1), pp. 15–22. [online] Available from: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/60/1/15 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

50           Dietz, William H. and Gortmaker, Steven L. (1985) ‘Do We Fatten Our Children at the Television Set? Obesity and Television Viewing in Children and Adolescents’. Pediatrics, 75(5), pp. 807–812. [online] Available from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/75/5/807 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

51           Gortmaker, Steven L. (1996) ‘Television Viewing as a Cause of Increasing Obesity Among Children in the United States, 1986-1990’. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 150(4), p. 356. [online] Available from: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archpedi.1996.02170290022003 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

52           Lumeng, Julie C., Rahnama, Sahand, Appugliese, Danielle, Kaciroti, Niko and Bradley, Robert H. (2006) ‘Television Exposure and Overweight Risk in Preschoolers’. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160(4), p. 417. [online] Available from: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archpedi.160.4.417 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

53           Epstein, Leonard H., Roemmich, James N., Robinson, Jodie L., Paluch, Rocco A., et al. (2008) ‘A Randomized Trial of the Effects of Reducing Television Viewing and Computer Use on Body Mass Index in Young Children’. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(3), p. 239. [online] Available from: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archpediatrics.2007.45 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

54           Doak, C. M., Visscher, T. L. S., Renders, C. M. and Seidell, J. C. (2006) ‘The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes’. Obesity Reviews, 7(1), pp. 111–136. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2006.00234.x (Accessed 8 August 2017)

55           Robinson, Thomas N. (1999) ‘Reducing Children’s Television Viewing to Prevent Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial’. JAMA, 282(16), p. 1561. [online] Available from: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jama.282.16.1561 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

56           Landhuis, E. C., Poulton, Richie, Welch, David and Hancox, Robert J. (2008) ‘Programming Obesity and Poor Fitness: The Long-term Impact of Childhood Television’. Obesity, 16(6), pp. 1457–1459. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1038/oby.2008.205 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

57           Thorp, A. A., Healy, G. N., Owen, N., Salmon, J., et al. (2010) ‘Deleterious Associations of Sitting Time and Television Viewing Time With Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers: Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study 2004-2005’. Diabetes Care, 33(2), pp. 327–334. [online] Available from: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/doi/10.2337/dc09-0493 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

58           Wijndaele, Katrien, Healy, Genevieve N., Dunstan, David W., Barnett, Adrian G., et al. (2010) ‘Increased Cardiometabolic Risk Is Associated with Increased TV Viewing Time’: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(8), pp. 1511–1518. [online] Available from: http://content.wkhealth.com/linkback/openurl?sid=WKPTLP:landingpage&an=00005768-201008000-00011 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

59           Wijndaele, Katrien, Brage, Søren, Besson, Hervé, Khaw, Kay-Tee, et al. (2011) ‘Television viewing time independently predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: the EPIC Norfolk Study’. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40(1), pp. 150–159. [online] Available from: https://academic.oup.com/ije/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ije/dyq105 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

60           Jago, R., Davison, K. K., Thompson, J. L., Page, A. S., et al. (2011) ‘Parental Sedentary Restriction, Maternal Parenting Style, and Television Viewing Among 10- to 11-Year-Olds’. PEDIATRICS. [online] Available from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2010-3664 (Accessed 8 August 2017)

61           Bickham, David S., Hswen, Yulin and Rich, Michael (2015) ‘Media use and depression: exposure, household rules, and symptoms among young adolescents in the USA’. International Journal of Public Health, 60(2), pp. 147–155. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-014-0647-6 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

62           Primack, Brian A., Swanier, Brandi, Georgiopoulos, Anna M., Land, Stephanie R. and Fine, Michael J. (2009) ‘Association Between Media Use in Adolescence and Depression in Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study’. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(2), pp. 181–188. [online] Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/210196 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

63           Maras, Danijela, Flament, Martine F., Murray, Marisa, Buchholz, Annick, et al. (2015) ‘Screen time is associated with depression and anxiety in Canadian youth’. Preventive Medicine, 73, pp. 133–138.

64           Hamer, Mark, Stamatakis, Emmanuel and Mishra, Gita (2009) ‘Psychological Distress, Television Viewing, and Physical Activity in Children Aged 4 to 12 Years’. Pediatrics, 123(5), pp. 1263–1268. [online] Available from: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/123/5/1263 (Accessed 9 January 2020)

65           Cao, Hui, Qian, Qingwen, Weng, Tingting, Yuan, Changjiang, et al. (2011) ‘Screen time, physical activity and mental health among urban adolescents in China’. Preventive Medicine, 53(4), pp. 316–320. [online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009174351100363X (Accessed 9 January 2020)

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Date de dernière mise à jour : 26/02/2020