Allaitement difficile

Pourquoi est-ce si dur d'allaiter?

Même s’il peut être parfois relativement facile à mettre en place et représenter une expérience agréable1, la plupart des femmes, quelle que soit leur expérience, rapportent avoir trouvé l’allaitement plus difficile que prévu2,3. Dans une étude, deux femmes sur trois décrivaient l’allaitement comme quelque chose de gênant, douloureux et difficile4. Ne s’attendant pas à trouver cela si difficile, elles avaient tendance à se blâmer elles-mêmes et à rapporter des sentiments d’échec et d’impuissance2.

En France, le taux d’allaitement n’est que de 70% à la naissance, et comme dans les autres pays, il chute ensuite rapidement avec seulement un enfant sur cinq encore allaité à six mois. Chez les enfants allaités, la durée de l’allaitement en France est en moyenne de quatre mois5. En fait, même dans des pays comme la Suède, réputée en avance dans ce domaine, alors que presque toutes les femmes commencent à allaiter elles ne sont plus que 80% après une semaine et 65% après deux mois6.

Pourquoi si peu de femmes allaitent? Les principaux problèmes sont généralement une incapacité du bébé à téter efficacement7–9 (40% des cas dans une étude10) et des mamelons douloureux (38% des cas dans la même étude10). Dans les pays occidentaux, entre 10 et 20 % des femmes ont aussi du mal à produire assez de lait dans les premières semaines suivant l’accouchement7,8,11.

D’où ces problèmes peuvent-ils venir et que peut-on faire? On sait aujourd’hui que l’allaitement est un phénomène complexe influencé par de nombreux facteurs, souvent en augmentation dans les pays occidentaux12,1312–19. Ces facteurs sont liés aux caractéristiques de la mère, aux pratiques médicale et l’environnement physique et social.

Les caractéristiques de la mère

  • Les problèmes de dépression postpartum. Les mères qui ont le plus de mal à allaiter sont celles ayant des problèmes de dépression postpartum20–24. Ces femmes ont des niveaux plus faibles d’ocytocine et en produisent aussi moins pendant l’allaitement25. Par ailleurs, contrairement aux autres mères qui rapportent trouver l’allaitement plutôt apaisant, les mères ayant des problèmes de dépression rapportent se sentir davantage surchargées, stressées et déprimées. Pour ces mamans, l’allaitement à la place du biberon de lait artificiel n’est donc pas forcement à privilégier26.
  • Le stress14–18. Que ce soit lors de la grossesse, de l’accouchement ou après la naissance de l’enfant, le stress ait lié avec un allaitement plus tardif et de plus courte durée.
  • L’intention d’allaiter27,28 augmente les chances d’allaiter rapidement et longtemps
  • Une grossesse à risque29. Dans cette étude, le fait d’avoir du diabète gestationnel, de l’hypertension ou de l’obésité diminuaient les chances d’avoir l’intention d’allaiter.
  • 30,31. Plusieurs études, dont une méta-analyse, ont rapporté que les femmes obeses sont moins susceptible d’avoir l’intention d’allaiter. Quand elles allaitent, elles le font en moyenne moins longtemps et ont moins de lait que les autres mères.
  • Le niveau de confiance en soi dans la capacité à allaiter32–34 semble influencer la durée de l’allaitement. S’informer sur le sujet peut donc être une bonne idée pour les mères peu confiante sur ce sujet.  
  • Les connaissances concernant l’allaitement35. La recherche souligne que les femmes qui avaient des attentes réalistes sur les difficultés liées à l’allaitement étaient plus susceptibles de persévérer que les femmes moins bien préparées36,37. Certains chercheurs insistent sur l’importance d’informer les mères et les infirmières sur les bienfaits de l’allaitement et les facteurs susceptibles de le gêner38. Des consultations sur l’allaitement qu’elles soient individuelles ou en groupe, au domicile ou dans des centres communautaires augmentent significativement les chances d’allaiter, même dans le cas d’une césarienne39. En France, il existe aussi des associations comme la Leche League France ou l’Information Pour l’Allaitement (IPA) qui peuvent aussi vous aider.
  • Le fait d’être mère pour la première fois, ou d’être une jeune maman8 ou le fait de n’avoir pas réussi à allaiter son 1er enfant. Les mères qui ne réussissent pas à allaiter sont moins susceptibles d’allaiter lors de la grossesse suivante40
  • Le fait d’être une fumeuse41–44 diminuait les chances d’allaiter. Etre fumeuse passive avait aussi un impact négatif. Il n’est pas clair cependant si cela vient du tabac ou d’autres facteurs liés au tabagisme pendant la grossesse (psychologie de la mère, grossesse précoce, statut socioéconomique…). Voir aussi article dédié au tabac pendant la grossesse.
  • Le fait d’avoir subis des abus sexuels. Chez les femmes ayant subis des abus sexuels, alors que certaines perçoivent l’allaitement comme un moyen de regagner leur corps et leur identité, d’autres trouvent l’allaitement gênant et peuvent même expérimenter des crises de panique et des flashbacks de leur agression45–47.
  • Le fait d’avoir eu des troubles de l’alimentation. Chez les femmes ayant eu des troubles de l’alimentation, certaines peuvent aussi mal vivre l’allaitement à cause des problèmes liés à leur image qu’elles ont de leur corps, et au sentiment de perte de contrôle48–50.

Les pratiques médicales

  • La césarienne8,51,52. Une revue de littérature et une méta-analyse rapportait que la césarienne diminuait les chances de se mettre à allaiter. Si l’allaitement avait lieu, le fait d’avoir eu une césarienne n’avait aucune influence sur la durée de l’allaitement.
  • La séparation de la mère et de l’enfant avant la première tétée53,54. Certains chercheurs insistent sur l’importance d’aider les mères à allaiter dans l’heure qui suit la naissance38.
  • Les offres d’échantillons gratuits de lait en poudre à la maternité55. Certains chercheurs encouragent à ne pas donner de compléments ou de lait artificiel au bébé à la maternité, sauf bien sûr contre-indications médicales38.

L’environnement de la mère

  • Le manque de soutien. Un soutien bienveillant de la part du personnel soignant, de la famille et du père favorise la mise en place de l’allaitement34,54,56–61. Et comme mentionné précédemment, des consultations individuelles ou en groupe, au domicile ou dans des centres communautaires augmentent significativement les chances d’allaiter même dans le cas d’une césarienne39.
  • Des pleurs excessifs de la part du bébé. Les mères de bébés qui pleurent beaucoup sont plus susceptibles de penser que leur lait ne suffit pas et de passer au lait artificiel62–64.Voir article dédié aux pleurs excessifs.
  • Le travail. De nombreuses études rapportent l’effet négatif du travail65–67. Les femmes retournant travailler sont moins susceptibles de continuer l’allaitement68,69. Des congés maternité courts (<6 semaines) multiplient par 4 les chances de ne pas commencer ou d’arrêter l’allaitement plus tôt70. Des règlementations facilitant l’allaitement pour les femmes qui travaillent sont généralement efficaces, telles que l’allongement des congés maternités, ou encore la possibilité de tirer son lait au travail dans une pièce réservée, et lors de pauses prévues pour cela39,68,71–73.

Références

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5             Wagner, Sandra, Kersuzan, Claire, Gojard, Séverine, Tichit, Christine, et al. (2015) ‘Durée de l’allaitement en France selon les caractéristiques des parents et de la naissance. Résultats de l’étude longitudinale française Elfe, 2011’. Bulletin Epidémiologique Hebdomadaire - BEH, (27), pp. 522–532. [online] Available from: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01203828 (Accessed 17 October 2018)

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Date de dernière mise à jour : 18/10/2019