Le style parental

  • Nom du fichier : Les styles parentaux

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Avertissement:

N’importe quelle approche, concernant la discipline ou l’éducation, reflète nécessairement un système de valeurs et des principes bien spécifiques concernant les relations parents-enfants. Par exemple, le seul fait de vouloir promouvoir l’obéissance et la soumission d’un enfant peut être questionnable. De même, l’idée de vouloir éduquer un enfant n’est pas sans poser de problèmes. Par exemple, peut-on éduquer sans endoctriner ?

J’ai essayé d’être le plus neutre possible. C’est ensuite à chacun selon ses valeurs d’utiliser les informations présentées pour évaluer au mieux les avantages et les risques de ses comportements, ainsi que les avantages et les risques des alternatives existantes.

Styleparental

Les 4 styles parentaux

Styles

Les chercheurs distinguent traditionnellement deux dimensions : l’écoute face aux besoins émotionnels de l’enfant et l’exigence quant au respect des règles. Cela les conduit à caractériser quatre styles parentaux1,2 :

  • le style parental démocratique (ou directif). Il est très à l’écoute des émotions et des besoins de l’enfant, mais il est très strict quant au respect des règles. Il encourage aussi les enfants à être responsables, à penser par eux-mêmes et à considérer les raisons des règles existantes ;
  • le style parental autoritaire. Il est peu à l’écoute des besoins de l’enfant, mais il est très strict quant au respect des règles. Il privilégie l’obéissance absolue et la punition ou la menace pour contrôler l’enfant ;
  • le style parental permissif (ou indulgent). Il est très à l’écoute des besoins de l’enfant, mais très peu strict, voire laxiste. Autrement dit, les parents ici sont peu enclins à faire respecter les règles ;
  • le style parental désengagé. Il n’est ni à l’écoute des besoins de l’enfant ni strict quant au respect des règles. Il n’offre que peu de soutien émotionnel et ne fixe pas de limites.

Qu’a-t-on appris quant aux conséquences de ces différents styles parentaux ?

  • Concernant les enfants exposés au style parental démocratique (parents très stricts mais aussi très à l’écoute), ils ont globalement moins de problèmes comportementaux, s’intègrent mieux socialement et ont de meilleures performances scolaires. Ce style parental est celui associé aux conséquences les plus positives dans la très grande majorité des études sur le sujet7–9.

En savoir plus :

Les enfants exposés à un style démocratique sont moins susceptibles de consommer des drogues et de l’alcool, de délinquance juvénile, ou d’autres comportements antisociaux10–14. Ce style permet aussi de prévenir les problèmes d’agressivité et de conflit chez les enfants d’âge préscolaire15,16.

Ainsi, les enfants exposés à ce style sont considérés comme plus sociaux, plus gentils et plus populaires par leurs enseignants et leurs camarades17. Ils ont aussi plus tendance, comparés à ceux exposés à d’autres styles parentaux18, à dire qu’ils écouteraient l’avis de leurs parents s’ils faisaient face à un problème moral. Sans surprise, ce style parental est celui associé aux conséquences les plus positives dans la très grande majorité des études sur le sujet7–9.

Une des caractéristiques du style parental démocratique est qu’il est sensible et réceptif aux besoins de l’enfant. Cette approche est connue pour favoriser un attachement dit « sécure »19, et l’on sait que ce type d’attachement favorise en retour les capacités de l’enfant à réguler ses émotions20–22, à être plus social et empathique22, et à être globalement moins stressé23,24. Ainsi, les enfants exposés à des parents réceptifs et chaleureux sont moins susceptibles de développer des troubles du comportement25–29 et ont de meilleures performances scolaires30–35.

Une réceptivité aux besoins de l’enfant peut aussi favoriser d’autres comportements bénéfiques, comme le fait de parler avec eux de leurs pensées et de leurs émotions. Ce type de « coaching émotionnel »29,36,37 lors duquel l’état émotionnel de l’enfant est reconnu, accepté, verbalisé et pris au sérieux aide l’enfant à se calmer et à être moins agressif et provocateur38–40, et a aussi été corrélé à de meilleures compétences sociales19,41–44. Le fait d’éviter de réprimander les enfants pour leurs erreurs intellectuelles semble aussi les rendre plus résilients face aux problèmes qu’ils rencontrent et plus susceptibles d’apprendre de leurs erreurs45–47.

Enfin, une autre caractéristique du style démocratique est le fait d’expliquer les raisons des règles existantes. Ce type de pratique appelé aussi « discipline inductive » semble aider les enfants à se montrer plus empathiques, consciencieux et sociaux15,48–51. Elle a aussi été liée à de meilleures capacités de raisonnement sur les sujets moraux49,52.

  • Concernant les enfants exposés au style parental autoritaire (parents très stricts et peu à l’écoute), ils ont globalement plus de chance d’être agressifs et provocateurs. Ils ont aussi plus de chance de souffrir d’anxiété, de dépression ou de faible estime de soi.

En savoir plus :

Au niveau comportemental, les enfants européens exposés à des styles parentaux autoritaires ont plus de chance d’abuser de l’alcool à l’adolescence53,54. Un travail récent, analysant plus de 1400 études scientifiques publiées sur le sujet, montre clairement qu’un contrôle sévère de l’enfant au moyen de punitions physiques ou verbales, ou par un contrôle psychologique (culpabiliser, humilier ou faire du chantage affectif) prédit le mieux le développement de comportements agressifs, provocateurs ou impulsifs sur le long terme8.

Globalement, le style autoritaire est souvent corrélé à de faibles performances scolaires11,55,56. Du fait qu’il s’agit d’une corrélation, certains ont tenté d’argumenter que ce seraient plutôt les faibles performances scolaires qui feraient opter les parents pour un style autoritaire. Une expérience intéressante s’oppose à cette interprétation. Dans cette expérience, la critique personnelle à la suite d’une mauvaise performance lors d’une tâche (une tactique souvent employée par les parents autoritaires) diminue les capacités de l’enfant à résoudre les tâches suivantes45. D’autres expériences ont par ailleurs démontré que l’on apprend mieux à la suite de feedbacks positifs que négatifs46,47, notamment si ceux-ci sont dirigés sur le processus plutôt que sur la personne (par exemple : « tu as très bien étudié ! » plutôt que « tu es très doué ! »45,57).

À un niveau plus social, quels que soient les pays étudiés (US, Chine, Chypre, Turquie, Amérique du Sud, Espagne, Pays-Bas….), ces enfants semblent moins doués socialement, ils sont moins bien acceptés et appréciés par leurs camarades, et ils ont plus de chance d’être impliqués dans des conflits aussi bien en tant qu’agresseurs que victimes10,11,17,58–65.

À un niveau plus émotionnel, ce style parental semble augmenter les chances de souffrir de troubles psychiatriques66, émotionnels67,68, anxieux69, dépressifs70–75 et d’estime de soi76,77.

  • Concernant les enfants exposés au style parental permissif (parents peu stricts mais très à l’écoute), ils sont globalement moins susceptibles d’avoir des problèmes comportementaux, scolaires, ou émotionnels que les enfants exposés à des styles désengagés ou autoritaires. Ils ont cependant plus de problèmes que les enfants exposés au style démocratique.

En savoir plus :

Il existe des résultats contradictoires concernant les liens entre le style parental permissif et certains troubles du comportement chez l’enfant. Ces études doivent donc être interprétées avec prudence8. Le style permissif semble globalement avoir moins d’effets négatifs que le style autoritaire, mais moins d’effets positifs que celui démocratique. En effet, plusieurs études sur des enfants ou des adolescents avec des parents permissifs montrent une excellente estime d’eux-mêmes, un plus grand bien-être et moins de symptômes dépressifs que les enfants exposés à des styles désengagés ou autoritaires10,74,78.

Toutefois, d’autres études montrent une relation entre le style permissif et de plus faibles capacités d’autorégulation, telles que la capacité à se concentrer ou à contrôler ses émotions79, et de plus hauts niveaux d’agressivité80,81, de consommation d’alcool10,82,83, de problèmes scolaires10 et d’obésité84.

Ces résultats contradictoires pourraient s’expliquer de plusieurs manières. D’un côté, une des caractéristiques du style parental permissif est qu’il est sensible et réceptif aux besoins de l’enfant. Cette approche est connue pour favoriser un attachement sécure19, ce qui, on l’a déjà mentionné, favorise en retour le développement cognitif, social et émotionnel. Néanmoins, ce qui caractérise le style permissif, c’est aussi le laxisme. Alors, même si d’un côté, certaines études suggèrent qu’encourager les enfants à être indépendants, favorise leur autonomie, leur capacité à résoudre des problèmes et globalement une meilleure santé mentale10,14,45,74,78,85 ; d’autres études soulignent que les enfants exposés au style permissif ont plus de chances de regarder la télévision plus de quatre heures par jour86,87 et d’avoir des carences de sommeil88. Or regarder la télévision plus de trois heures par jour a été associé à des effets négatifs sur le développement intellectuel89–92, les résultats scolaires92–94, le langage95–99, l’attention92,100, les comportements alimentaires101–109, l’obésité110–128, les risques cardiovasculaires86,129–131, la santé mentale132–138, l’apparition de conduites sanitaires à risques telles que le tabagisme139–145 et l’alcoolisme146–153, et enfin le sommeil154–160 (voir la section dédiée aux écrans pour plus de détail). Ce dernier point n’est pas à prendre à la légère, car un manque même léger de sommeil peut avoir des conséquences négatives importantes sur la santé physique161–173 et mentale168,174–181.

  • Concernant les enfants exposés au style parental désengagé (parents peu stricts et peu à l’écoute), ils présentent globalement les pires résultats, aussi bien du point de vue comportemental qu’émotionnel. La plupart des délinquants juvéniles ont été exposés à ce style parental182,183.
  • Concernant les enfants exposés au style parental démocratique (parents très stricts mais aussi très à l’écoute), ils ont globalement moins de problèmes comportementaux, s’intègrent mieux socialement et ont de meilleures performances scolaires. Ce style parental est celui associé aux conséquences les plus positives dans la très grande majorité des études sur le sujet7–9.
  • En savoir plus :

    Les enfants exposés à un style démocratique sont moins susceptibles de consommer des drogues et de l’alcool, de délinquance juvénile, ou d’autres comportements antisociaux10–14. Ce style permet aussi de prévenir les problèmes d’agressivité et de conflit chez les enfants d’âge préscolaire15,16.

    Ainsi, les enfants exposés à ce style sont considérés comme plus sociaux, plus gentils et plus populaires par leurs enseignants et leurs camarades17. Ils ont aussi plus tendance, comparés à ceux exposés à d’autres styles parentaux18, à dire qu’ils écouteraient l’avis de leurs parents s’ils faisaient face à un problème moral. Sans surprise, ce style parental est celui associé aux conséquences les plus positives dans la très grande majorité des études sur le sujet7–9.

    Une des caractéristiques du style parental démocratique est qu’il est sensible et réceptif aux besoins de l’enfant. Cette approche est connue pour favoriser un attachement dit « sécure »19, et l’on sait que ce type d’attachement favorise en retour les capacités de l’enfant à réguler ses émotions20–22, à être plus social et empathique22, et à être globalement moins stressé23,24. Ainsi, les enfants exposés à des parents réceptifs et chaleureux sont moins susceptibles de développer des troubles du comportement25–29 et ont de meilleures performances scolaires30–35.

    Une réceptivité aux besoins de l’enfant peut aussi favoriser d’autres comportements bénéfiques, comme le fait de parler avec eux de leurs pensées et de leurs émotions. Ce type de « coaching émotionnel »29,36,37 lors duquel l’état émotionnel de l’enfant est reconnu, accepté, verbalisé et pris au sérieux aide l’enfant à se calmer et à être moins agressif et provocateur38–40, et a aussi été corrélé à de meilleures compétences sociales19,41–44. Le fait d’éviter de réprimander les enfants pour leurs erreurs intellectuelles semble aussi les rendre plus résilients face aux problèmes qu’ils rencontrent et plus susceptibles d’apprendre de leurs erreurs45–47.

    Enfin, une autre caractéristique du style démocratique est le fait d’expliquer les raisons des règles existantes. Ce type de pratique appelé aussi « discipline inductive » semble aider les enfants à se montrer plus empathiques, consciencieux et sociaux15,48–51. Elle a aussi été liée à de meilleures capacités de raisonnement sur les sujets moraux49,52.

  • Concernant les enfants exposés au style parental autoritaire (parents très stricts et peu à l’écoute), ils ont globalement plus de chance d’être agressifs et provocateurs. Ils ont aussi plus de chance de souffrir d’anxiété, de dépression ou de faible estime de soi.
  • En savoir plus :

    Au niveau comportemental, les enfants européens exposés à des styles parentaux autoritaires ont plus de chance d’abuser de l’alcool à l’adolescence53,54. Un travail récent, analysant plus de 1400 études scientifiques publiées sur le sujet, montre clairement qu’un contrôle sévère de l’enfant au moyen de punitions physiques ou verbales, ou par un contrôle psychologique (culpabiliser, humilier ou faire du chantage affectif) prédit le mieux le développement de comportements agressifs, provocateurs ou impulsifs sur le long terme8.

    Globalement, le style autoritaire est souvent corrélé à de faibles performances scolaires11,55,56. Du fait qu’il s’agit d’une corrélation, certains ont tenté d’argumenter que ce seraient plutôt les faibles performances scolaires qui feraient opter les parents pour un style autoritaire. Une expérience intéressante s’oppose à cette interprétation. Dans cette expérience, la critique personnelle à la suite d’une mauvaise performance lors d’une tâche (une tactique souvent employée par les parents autoritaires) diminue les capacités de l’enfant à résoudre les tâches suivantes45. D’autres expériences ont par ailleurs démontré que l’on apprend mieux à la suite de feedbacks positifs que négatifs46,47, notamment si ceux-ci sont dirigés sur le processus plutôt que sur la personne (par exemple : « tu as très bien étudié ! » plutôt que « tu es très doué ! »45,57).

    À un niveau plus social, quels que soient les pays étudiés (US, Chine, Chypre, Turquie, Amérique du Sud, Espagne, Pays-Bas….), ces enfants semblent moins doués socialement, ils sont moins bien acceptés et appréciés par leurs camarades, et ils ont plus de chance d’être impliqués dans des conflits aussi bien en tant qu’agresseurs que victimes10,11,17,58–65.

    À un niveau plus émotionnel, ce style parental semble augmenter les chances de souffrir de troubles psychiatriques66, émotionnels67,68, anxieux69, dépressifs70–75 et d’estime de soi76,77.

  • Concernant les enfants exposés au style parental permissif (parents peu stricts mais très à l’écoute), ils sont globalement moins susceptibles d’avoir des problèmes comportementaux, scolaires, ou émotionnels que les enfants exposés à des styles désengagés ou autoritaires. Ils ont cependant plus de problèmes que les enfants exposés au style démocratique.
  • Concernant les enfants exposés au style parental désengagé (parents peu stricts et peu à l’écoute), ils présentent globalement les pires résultats, aussi bien du point de vue comportemental qu’émotionnel. La plupart des délinquants juvéniles ont été exposés à ce style parental182,183.
  • En savoir plus :

    Il existe des résultats contradictoires concernant les liens entre le style parental permissif et certains troubles du comportement chez l’enfant. Ces études doivent donc être interprétées avec prudence8. Le style permissif semble globalement avoir moins d’effets négatifs que le style autoritaire, mais moins d’effets positifs que celui démocratique. En effet, plusieurs études sur des enfants ou des adolescents avec des parents permissifs montrent une excellente estime d’eux-mêmes, un plus grand bien-être et moins de symptômes dépressifs que les enfants exposés à des styles désengagés ou autoritaires10,74,78.

    Toutefois, d’autres études montrent une relation entre le style permissif et de plus faibles capacités d’autorégulation, telles que la capacité à se concentrer ou à contrôler ses émotions79, et de plus hauts niveaux d’agressivité80,81, de consommation d’alcool10,82,83, de problèmes scolaires10 et d’obésité84.

    Ces résultats contradictoires pourraient s’expliquer de plusieurs manières. D’un côté, une des caractéristiques du style parental permissif est qu’il est sensible et réceptif aux besoins de l’enfant. Cette approche est connue pour favoriser un attachement sécure19, ce qui, on l’a déjà mentionné, favorise en retour le développement cognitif, social et émotionnel. Néanmoins, ce qui caractérise le style permissif, c’est aussi le laxisme. Alors, même si d’un côté, certaines études suggèrent qu’encourager les enfants à être indépendants, favorise leur autonomie, leur capacité à résoudre des problèmes et globalement une meilleure santé mentale10,14,45,74,78,85 ; d’autres études soulignent que les enfants exposés au style permissif ont plus de chances de regarder la télévision plus de quatre heures par jour86,87 et d’avoir des carences de sommeil88. Or regarder la télévision plus de trois heures par jour a été associé à des effets négatifs sur le développement intellectuel89–92, les résultats scolaires92–94, le langage95–99, l’attention92,100, les comportements alimentaires101–109, l’obésité110–128, les risques cardiovasculaires86,129–131, la santé mentale132–138, l’apparition de conduites sanitaires à risques telles que le tabagisme139–145 et l’alcoolisme146–153, et enfin le sommeil154–160 (voir la section dédiée aux écrans pour plus de détail). Ce dernier point n’est pas à prendre à la légère, car un manque même léger de sommeil peut avoir des conséquences négatives importantes sur la santé physique161–173 et mentale168,174–181.

Que se passe-t-il si les deux parents n’ont pas le même style?

Une étude réalisée dans un lycée américain s’est intéressée à l’effet de la cohérence entre les styles éducatifs des parents. Dans cette étude, avoir au moins un des parents adoptant un style démocratique a un effet positif même si l’autre adopte un style permissif ou autoritaire184. Autrement dit, avoir un des parents adoptant un style démocratique est donc plus bénéfique que d’avoir deux parents adoptant ensemble un autre style.

Que se passe-t-il si l’environnement social n’a pas le même style éducatif que celui des parents ?

Certaines incohérences dans la littérature scientifique ont amené les chercheurs à se poser la question. En effet, concernant le style autoritaire, plusieurs études sur des adolescents aux États-Unis et au Moyen-Orient n’ont pas trouvé certaines des conséquences émotionnelles négatives habituelles10,185–187. De même, dans les milieux socioéconomiques moins favorisés, la différence entre les effets du style parental autoritaire ou démocratique semble être atténuée188,189, voire inversée. Ainsi, si le style autoritaire aboutit à de plus faibles performances scolaires à Pékin61 et à Taiwan190, il aboutit à de meilleures performances chez les Chinois à Hong Kong191 et les Chinois ayant immigré en Amérique du Nord192.

L’environnement social pourrait expliquer ces inconsistances. Par exemple, certains chercheurs suggèrent que si l’enfant perçoit l’autorité comme étant la norme, il peut moins en souffrir186. La pression sociale provenant des camarades de classe pourrait aussi annuler les effets du style parental. En effet, certains groupes de camarades peuvent encourager la réussite scolaire et d’autres la diminuer. Par exemple, dans une étude américaine les étudiants asiatiques testés avaient des camarades encourageant la réussite scolaire et ils s’en sortaient effectivement mieux, même avec des parents autoritaires. À l’inverse, les étudiants afro-américains testés tendaient à avoir des camarades rejetant les bons élèves. Ces enfants avaient alors de moins bons résultats, même avec des parents éduqués adoptant un style démocratique11.

 

Références

1             Baumrind, Diana (1966) ‘Effects of Authoritative Parental Control on Child Behavior’. Child Development, 37(4), p. 887. [online] Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1126611?origin=crossref (Accessed 13 September 2017)

2             Maccoby, E. E. and Martin, J. A. (1983) ‘Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction’, in Hetherington, E. M. (ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4: Socialization, personality and social development, Chichester, New York, Wiley.

3             Osorio, A. and González-Cámara, M. (2016) ‘Testing the alleged superiority of the indulgent parenting style among Spanish adolescents.’ Psicothema, 28(4), pp. 414–420. [online] Available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/27776610 (Accessed 14 September 2017)

4             Kim, K. and Rohner, R.P. (2002) ‘Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents’. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(2), pp. 127–140. [online] Available from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022102033002001 (Accessed 22 November 2017)

5             Chao, R.K. (2000) ‘Cultural explanations for the role of parenting in the school success of Asian-American children.’, in Resilience across contexts:  Family, work, culture, and community., Mahwah,  NJ,  US, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, pp. 333–363.

6             Chao, R.K. (2000) ‘The Parenting of Immigrant Chinese and European American Mothers: Relations Between Parenting Styles, Socialization Goals, and Parental Practices’. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21(2), pp. 233–248. [online] Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0193397399000374 (Accessed 22 November 2017)

7             Steinberg, Laurence (2001) ‘We Know Some Things: Parent-Adolescent Relationships in Retrospect and Prospect’. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11(1), pp. 1–19. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/1532-7795.00001 (Accessed 5 September 2017)

8             Pinquart, Martin (2017) ‘Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing problems of children and adolescents: An updated meta-analysis.’ Developmental Psychology, 53(5), pp. 873–932.

9             Pinquart, Martin and Kauser, Rubina (2018) ‘Do the associations of parenting styles with behavior problems and academic achievement vary by culture? Results from a meta-analysis’. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(1), pp. 75–100. [online] Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=2017-15641-001&site=ehost-live (Accessed 25 November 2020)

10           Lamborn, S.D., Mounts, N.S., Steinberg, L. and Dornbusch, S.M. (1991) ‘Patterns of Competence and Adjustment among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families’. Child Development, 62(5), pp. 1049–1065. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1991.tb01588.x (Accessed 7 August 2017)

11           Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S.D., Dornbusch, S.M. and Darling, N. (1992) ‘Impact of Parenting Practices on Adolescent Achievement: Authoritative Parenting, School Involvement, and Encouragement to Succeed’. Child Development, 63(5), pp. 1266–1281. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1992.tb01694.x (Accessed 7 August 2017)

12           Querido, Jane G., Warner, Tamara D. and Eyberg, Sheila M. (2002) ‘Parenting Styles and Child Behavior in African American Families of Preschool Children’. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 31(2), pp. 272–277. [online] Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3102_12 (Accessed 5 September 2017)

13           Benchaya, Mariana C., Bisch, Nadia K., Moreira, Taís C. and Barros, Helena M. T. (2011) ‘Non-authoritative parents and impact on drug use: the perception of adolescent children’. Jornal de Pediatria, 0(0). [online] Available from: http://jped.com.br/conteudo/Ing_resumo.asp?varArtigo=2189&cod=&idSecao=1 (Accessed 5 September 2017)

14           Luyckx, Koen, Tildesley, Elizabeth A., Soenens, Bart, Andrews, Judy A., et al. (2011) ‘Parenting and Trajectories of Children’s Maladaptive Behaviors: A 12-Year Prospective Community Study’. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(3), pp. 468–478. [online] Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15374416.2011.563470 (Accessed 9 August 2017)

15           Choe, D. E., Olson, S.L. and Sameroff, A. J. (2013) ‘The interplay of externalizing problems and physical and inductive discipline during childhood’. Developmental Psychology, 19(11), pp. 2029–2039.

16           Yamagata, Shinji, Takahashi, Yusuke, Ozaki, Koken, Fujisawa, Keiko K., et al. (2013) ‘Bidirectional influences between maternal parenting and children’s peer problems: a longitudinal monozygotic twin difference study’. Developmental Science, 16(2), pp. 249–259. [online] Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/desc.12021 (Accessed 5 September 2017)

17           Deković, Maja and Janssens, Jan M. (1992) ‘Parents’ child-rearing style and child’s sociometric status.’ Developmental Psychology, 28(5), pp. 925–932.

18           Bednar, Dell Elaine and Fisher, Terri D. (2003) ‘Peer referencing in adolescent decision making as a function of perceived parenting style’. Adolescence, 38(152), pp. 607–621.

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Date de dernière mise à jour : 25/11/2020